English Language Exam Summary

What is a Sentence?

A sentence can be defined as a group of words that expresses a complete thought which contains a subject and a predicate and is not by anyway part of any other grammatical construction.

Elements of a Sentence Structure

  • S – Subject – Doer/Responsible for a particular action in a sentence.
  • V – Verb – Action word/Action that is present in the sentence.
  • O – Object – Receiver of the action described by the verb [Indirect & Direct]
  • C – Compliment – Completes the meaning of a sentence [Subject & Object Complement]
  • A – Adjunct – Performs the function of an adverb which adds meaning to the verb in a sentence.

Types of Sentences

According to Form / Function

DDeclarative Sentences: They are used to make statements that are facts and asserts universal truth.

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IImperative Sentences: They are used to issue commands, directives and mild requests.

IInterrogative Sentences: They are used to ask questions, hence it interrogates and are categorized into the following;

  • Polar Questions: This elicits a Yes/No answer.
  • Rhetorical Questions: Does not require an answer/reply.
  • Tag Questions: It may convey positive/negative orientation depending on the context of the question.
  • WH Questions: These are questions that require information.

EExclamatory Sentences: Designed to express excitements, surprise, anger, etc. … and usually ends with the exclamation mark.

According To Structure

S – Simple Sentence: They express just one main idea, the subject, and a verb/predicate.

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C – Complex Sentence: They express one main idea and one subordinate idea which cannot stand on its own to make a complete thought until it is attached to the main clause.

C – Compound Sentence: They express two main ideas/Independent ideas and cannot accommodate a subordinate idea/dependent clause, they are joined by coordinating conjunction or separated by a comma or semi-colon.

C – Compound-Complex Sentence: They express two main ideas and at least one subordinate idea.

M – Multiple Sentence: They may consist of three or more main ideas and two or more subordinate ideas.


The main ideas are also known as Independent Ideas while Subordinate Ideas are also known as Dependent Ideas.

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