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A manager is a person saddled with the responsibility of planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling all resources to achieve the stated goals and objectives of an organization.

A manager is also a person to whose job is to oversee or supervise one or more employees, divisions, or teams to ensure that they carry out certain duties or meet specific group goals.


There are two kinds of manager namely: General and Functional managers.

  • General Manager: As the name suggests, a general manager is the one who is responsible for monitoring the whole organization or sub-units including functional areas. In other words, a general manager oversees functional departments like production, finance, marketing, human resources, etc. of an enterprise.
  • Functional Manager: This type of manager is responsible for monitoring one specific functional area or department such as production, personnel, marketing, finance, etc.
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Top Level Management, Middle Level Management, and Lower Level Management.

The three levels of management namely;

  1. Top Level Management: These are senior managers of the organization. They are responsible for developing goals, strategies, plans and policies of the organization. Examples include chief executive officer (CEO), managing directors, chairman and other executive officers.
  2. Middle-Level Management: This level of manager follows the top level manager. They are responsible for carrying out goals, directives set by the top-level manager. They also help lower-level managers in their daily activities. Example: Departmental manager, regional manager, etc.
  3. Lower level Management: They are also called first-line manager. This level of manager is saddled with the responsibility to oversee or supervise the daily operation of the organization. Example include supervisors, foremen, clerk, etc.
Siehe auch:  Ist Management eine Kunst oder eine Wissenschaft?


A manager is expected to possess certain attributes or qualities for effective job performance. These qualities are:

  1. Knowledge: A good manager must have knowledge of the job he is performed, knowledge about his subordinate and knowledge to solve initial problems.
  2. Leadership by Examples: A good manager is expected to lead by showing a good example to others or subordinates to follow in the organization.
  3. Planning: A manager must be able to plan, and schedule works in advance to achieve the set standard organization.
  4. Organizing: A good manager should be able to organize both human and material resources towards achieving organizational goals and objectives.
  5. Coordinating: A good manager must be able to integrate both human and material resources towards better performance.
  6. Communication Skill: A good manager must possess good communication skill so that he can interact and exchange information with group members fluently.
  7. Flexibility: A manager should be able to adjust to changes in the environment that their organization exists.
  8. Courage: A manager must have enough courage, to tell the truth in matters of suitability, efficiency, or characters about his subordinate.
  9. Ability to Delegate: A manager should be able to delegate part of his authority to other group members and ensure accountability.
  10. Acceptance of Responsibility: When a manager delegates part of his authority, he must be ready and willing to accept responsibility for such action without any fear or criticism.
  11. Fairness: A manager must ensure that there are fairness and kindness in dealing with group members. He must also ensure that there is no room for discrimination.
  12. Recognition: A good manager should be able to praise, recognize and advise his group members when necessary.
  13. Capacity: A good manager should be mental, psychologically and emotionally fit to perform his required duties.
  14. Self-confidence: A good manager should be self-confident and be smart at all time.
  15. Decision Making: A good manager must consult and allows his subordinates in the decision-making process of the organization.
  16. Conflict: A manager should be able to settle disputes, disagreements and conflicts amicably.
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